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What are the Stages of Testicular Cancer in Children?

Stages of Testicular Cancer and where it can spread throughout the body
Stages of Testicular Cancer and where it can spread throughout the body
Image © 2003 Fairman Studios, LLC.

  • Stage 1: Cancer is found only in the testicle.
  • Stage 2: Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the belly.
  • Stage 3: Cancer has spread beyond the lymph nodes in the belly. There may be cancer in parts of the body far away from the testicles such as the lungs and liver.

What are the Types of Testicular Tumors in Children?

The most common testicular tumors in prepubescent males are yolk sac tumors and teratomas. These types make up about 80% of all testicular tumors in young boys.

Yolk Sac Tumors

These tumors look like the yolk sac of an early human embryo. In young children they are often treated with success. When these tumors grow in adults, they are more dangerous.

Teratomas

Under the microscope these germ cell tumors look like each of the 3 layers of a growing embryo. They are the most common benign tumors of the testicles. Most children show signs by age 14 months.

Gonadal Stromal Tumors

Together these rare tumors (Sertoli cell tumors, Leydig cell tumors and juvenile granulosa cell tumor) make up 8% of all testicular tumors in the Prepubertal Testis Tumor Registry. Older children have a slightly higher risk of these tumors spreading. So, they should have an in-depth exam with CT and chest x-ray.

Gonadoblastoma and Dysgerminoma

These tumors are rare, and happen most often in children with intersex disorders. The tumor grows in children with testicles that did not develop normally. Gonadoblastomas are benign, but they can change into malignant dysgerminomas in 50% of cases. Most cases show signs after puberty.