Your urologist can often figure out how bad the injury to the testicle is with a physical exam. After asking questions about how the injury occurred, as well as other questions about your health, he/she will look at your scrotum. It's often easy for your urologist to feel the tough testicle cover, as well as the thin, soft epididymis. He/she will also feel the structures that run into the testicle--the artery, vein and vas deferens--to make sure they're normal.
If all seem normal with no injury, your urologist will likely give you pain meds, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. You'll also be told to wear a jock strap to support the scrotum.
If it's not clear if injury has occurred, your urologist may ask for a scrotal ultrasound scan. Ultrasound uses sound waves bouncing off organs to make a picture of what's inside your body. Based on the same sonar sound waves that guide submarines, this device can safely image parts of the sac, including the testicle, epididymis and spermatic cord, to check the blood flow.
Though no imaging test is 100% perfect, ultrasound is easy to do, uses no X-rays, and clearly shows the structure of the scrotum. In rare cases, the ultrasound leaves more questions than answers. Your urologists may ask for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a more sophisticated imaging technique.