The exact cause of urethral cancer is not known. But longtime swelling and infection may add to the risk. Many men with urethral cancer have been treated before for urethral stricture disease or sexually transmitted infections. Many women with urethral cancer have been treated before for urethral caruncle (mass), urethral diverticulum (outpouching) or chronic UTI. In both men and women, human papilloma virus (HPV) has been linked to urethral cancer.
Even if you have had your bladder removed for bladder cancer, urethral cancer may still develop. Routine check-ups with your urologist is key to staying healthy. If cancer cells are found, you may need part or all of the urethra removed.