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Bladder cancer is cancer that begins in the bladder. …more

Cancer is when cells in the body grow out of control. These cells can form a tumor or damaged tissue. If cancer cells grow in the kidney, it is called kidney cancer.…more

Thankfully, kidney tumors are rare in children, with some of them being highly treatable and usually curable. But would you know how to recognize this condition? The following information should help you spot this tumor long before it becomes a life-threatening issue.…more

The word renal means kidney. The words “tumor” and “mass” mean abnormal growths in the body. A renal mass, or tumor, is an abnormal growth in the kidney. Some renal masses are benign (not cancerous) and some are malignant (cancerous). …more

Urethral cancer is rare is the most rare of all urological cancer. Only 1 or 2 people out of a 100 patients with cancer get this type. It is more common in men than women.…more

Rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare and sometimes deadly cancer that affects children. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma often starts in the genital and urinary organs. It affects soft, connective tissue, and can hit many systems of the body.…more

A UTI is when bacteria gets into your urine and travels up to your bladder. UTIs cause more than 8.1 million visits to health care providers each year. About 10 in 25 women and 3 in 25 men will have symptoms of at least 1 UTI during their lifetime.…more

A chronic bladder health issue resulting in a feeling of pain and pressure in the bladder area. …more

A UTI is when bacteria get into your urine and travel up to your bladder. As many as 8% of girls and 2% of boys will get UTIs. Young children have a greater risk of kidney damage linked to UTI than older children or adults.…more

Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is a cancer that spreads into the detrusor muscle of the bladder. The detrusor muscle is the thick muscle deep in the bladder wall. This cancer is more likely to spread to other parts of the body. About 1 out of 4 people who get bladder cancer in the United States have the muscle invasive kind.…more

The most common symptom of OAB is a sudden urge to urinate that you can’t control.…more

Urinary incontinence is leaking of urine that you can’t control. Many American men and women suffer from urinary incontinence.…more

SUI is the most common type of urine leakage. It happens when activities like laughing or coughing cause urine to leak. Leakage can be a few drops to tablespoons or more.…more

When children urinate without control while they sleep, it is called nocturnal enuresis. It’s also known as bedwetting. …more

Neurogenic bladder is the name given to a number of urinary conditions in people who lack bladder control due to a brain, spinal cord or nerve problem.…more

Bladder control depends on muscles working together when the bladder is filling. The bladder muscle should be relaxed and the muscles around the urethra (the tube that urine passes through), called the pelvic floor muscles, should be tight.…more

If you wake up more than one time each night to go to the bathroom, you may have nocturia. Sleep disruption from having to urinate during the night can impact your quality of life. About 1 in 3 adults over the age of 30 experience nocturia. …more

During routine visits to your health care provider, you are often asked to give a urine sample for testing. Many tests are routinely performed on it, like checking for sugar (diabetes), bacteria (infection) and blood. Blood in the urine that you do not see is called “microscopic hematuria.”…more

The urethra’s main job in males and females is to pass urine outside the body. This thin tube also has an important role in ejaculation for men. When a scar from swelling, injury or infection blocks or slows the flow of urine in this tube, it is called a urethral stricture. Some people feel pain with a urethral stricture.…more

Normally, urine flows one way, down from the kidneys, through tubes called ureters, to the bladder. But what happens when urine flows from the bladder back into the ureters? This is called vesicoureteral reflux.…more

Paruresis, often called “shy bladder” syndrome, is when you have trouble urinating when other people are around. Depending on how bad it is, some people are not able to void without some or total privacy.…more

Urinary diversion is when the normal structures are bypassed and an opening is made in the urinary system to bring the urine out another way. This might need to be done if your bladder stops working the right way or had to be removed because of cancer or an injury.…more

A bladder fistula is when an opening forms between the bladder and some other organ or the skin. Most often the bladder opens to the bowel ("enterovesical fistula") or the vagina ("vesicovaginal fistula").…more

A bladder diverticulum is a pouch in the bladder wall that a person may either be born with ("congenital") or get later ("acquired"). …more

The bladder isn’t injured often. The bones in the pelvis protect it from most outside forces. But the bladder can be injured by blows or piercing objects. Most often these are related to pelvic fracture. Timely evaluation and proper management are critical for the best outcomes.…more

Urethral diverticulum (UD) is a pocket or pouch that forms along the urethra. Because of its location, it can be filled with urine and lead to infections. It is can cause: a painful vaginal mass, ongoing pelvic pain, and many urinary tract infections (UTIs).…more

The urethra is a vital part of the urinary tract. Its main job is to carry urine out of the body. In men, this channel also carries semen from the reproductive tract.…more

Bladder augmentation is an operation performed to increase the size of the bladder. This type of surgery is for patients whose bladder is not large enough to hold the usual amount of urine made by the kidneys. In some patients, the urine may leak from the bladder, causing wetting (incontinence).…more

Urine contains many dissolved minerals and salts. When urine has high levels of minerals and salts, it can help to form stones. Kidney stones can start small but can grow larger in size, even filling the inner hollow structures of the kidney. Some stones stay in the kidney, and do not cause any problems. Sometimes, the kidney stone can travel down the ureter, the tube between the kidney and the bladder.…more

Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection where one or both kidneys become infected. They can be infected by bacteria or a virus. It can cause people to feel very sick and it requires treatment.…more

Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is when part of the kidney is blocked. Most often it is blocked at the renal pelvis. This is where the kidney attaches to one of the ureters (the tubes that carry urine to the bladder). The blockage slows or stops the flow of urine out of the kidney. Urine can then build up and damage the kidney. Sometimes surgery is needed to improve the flow of urine, other times the problem will improve on its own.…more

Most people are born with 2 kidneys. Factors can sometimes affect how the kidneys develop. An ectopic kidney is a kidney that does not grow in the proper location.…more

The ureter is a muscular tube that transfers urine from the kidney to the bladder. It is about 10 inches long, with the upper half in the belly and the lower half in the pelvic area.…more

Most people are born with 2 kidneys. But sometimes the kidneys form fused together. The information here will help you talk to your urologist if you or your child has this condition.…more

An abscess is a localized collection of pus in a hollow area formed by the breaking up of tissues. A renal abscess is one that is confined to the kidney and is caused either by bacteria from an infection traveling to the kidneys through the bloodstream or by a urinary tract infection traveling to the kidney and then spreading to the kidney tissue.…more

Sometimes kidneys are no longer able to filter and clean blood. This can cause unsafe levels of waste products to build up. This is known as kidney (or renal) failure. Unless it is treated, this can cause death.…more

Your kidneys are generally well protected by muscles of the back and rib cage but injuries can occur as a result of blunt or penetrating trauma. The kidney is the most common organ in the urinary tract to be injured by severe trauma. "Trauma" is injury caused by an external force that may be either blunt—such as a car accident—or penetrating—such as a gunshot wound.…more

Renovascular diseases are disorders primarily affecting the arteries of the kidneys and resulting in hypertension and kidney dysfunction.…more

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are also commonly called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). They are the infections you get from another person through sexual contact.…more

Hydroceles occur when fluid fills a sac in the scrotum of the penis (in the “inguinal canal”). An inguinal hernia occurs if a small part of the intestine drops into the scrotum with the testes.…more

While benign (non-cancerous) tumors in the adrenal gland are very common, cancers in or around this gland are very rare. They are found in only 1 or 3 per 1 million people. These tumors can give off too much cortisol or other hormones.…more

Epispadias is a rare congenital (present at birth) abnormality that involves the opening of the urethra (the tube from which urine exit the bladder). In boys with epispadias, the urethra opens in top of the penis rather than the tip. The space between this opening and tip of the penis appears like an open book (gutter). In girls with epispadias, the urethral opening is towards the clitoris or even belly area. This results in the external genitalia and urethra not forming or functioning well.…more

Every hour of every day, a baby is born and can easily be identified as a boy or girl. But how distressing it must be when suddenly the birth attendants are unable to say whether the baby is a boy or a girl? This rare situation is usually unanticipated, and can be a difficult experience for all concerned. What causes this condition? What can be done? The following information has been developed to answer questions about ambiguous genitalia.…more

Bladder exstrophy is an abnormality present at birth in which the bladder and associated structures are improperly formed. Rather than being its normal round shape, the bladder is flattened. The skin, muscle and pelvic bones joining the lower part of the abdomen do not form properly so the inside of the bladder is exposed outside the abdomen. There are associated deficiencies of the abdominal muscles and pelvic bones also.…more

Sometimes factors can occasionally interfere with bladder development, as is the case for children with cloacal exstrophy. This is the most severe birth defect in the exstrophy-epispadias complex. A child with this condition will have the bladder and a portion of the intestines, exposed outside the abdomen, with the bony pelvis open like a book.…more

Most of us are born with 2 ureters, the tube that drains the urine from each kidney into the bladder. But some babies are born with 2 ureters that drain a single kidney. In these cases, one ureter drains the upper part of the kidney and the second ureter drains the lower part of the kidney. As long as they both enter the bladder, this extra ureter is usually not a problem.…more

A megaureter (“large ureter”) is when a ureter is wider than three-eighths of an inch. This can result from an abnormality of the ureter itself (primary) or from the bladder being blocked (secondary).…more

Before birth, there is a connection between the bellybutton and the bladder. This connection, called the urachus, normally disappears before birth. But what happens if part of the urachus remains after birth? Read on to learn more about what problems can arise.…more

A biopsy involves taking a piece of skin or tissue from the body to look under a microscope. A doctor will see if the tissue contains cancer or other abnormal cells. The results of the biopsy can help determine the next best step in diagnosis or treatment.…more

Conn's syndrome is a rare health problem that occurs when the adrenal glands make too much aldosterone. This problem is also known as primary hyperaldosteronism. Aldosterone is a hormone that controls salt and potassium levels in the blood. Too much leads to high blood pressure.…more

Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is a rare problem caused when the adrenal gland(s) makes too much of a hormone called cortisol. CS is most often due to a tumor or mass found in the pituitary gland, but can also be caused by tumors in the adrenal glands themselves.…more

Cystoscopy, or cystourethroscopy, is a procedure that lets a urologist view the inside of the bladder and urethra in detail.…more

Most kidneys work well cleaning the blood from waste and keeping the body’s fluids and electrolytes in balance. A problem can occur during early kidney development in utero that results in an abnormal kidney (kidney dysplasia). Cysts, or fluid filled sacs, replace normal kidney tissue. As a result, kidney function can deteriorate before or after birth. Children with end stage kidney function will require blood-filtering treatment (kidney dialysis) until a kidney is available to be transplanted.…more

A kidney transplant is one of the most common organ transplant surgeries performed today. In this surgery, kidneys that aren't working well are replaced by a kidney from a donor. Kidney transplants have been performed since the 1950s. This surgery is a lifesaving choice for thousands of patients with end-stage kidney disease. If you have kidney failure and cannot have a transplant, dialysis can sustain life. Dialysis cleans the blood by removing waste products such as urea.…more

Pheochromocytoma is a tumor found in the adrenal medulla (the inner part of the adrenal gland). The adrenal medulla makes the hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). If a tumor forms in this area, it can cause too much of these hormones to be made. This can be very dangerous, as it causes very high blood pressure.…more

This is a diagnostic test for male patients with trauma (injury) to the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder and out the body. If there is a urethral stricture (a block or closing), urine cannot flow out.…more

An ultrasound exam (or “sonogram”) is a painless diagnostic technique that makes use of how sound waves travel through the body. When sound waves pass through the body, they bounce off tissues and organs in certain ways. The reflected waves can be used to make images of the organs inside. The sound waves don’t hurt the body, and there’s no radiation.…more

Most of us are born with two ureters, one from each kidney to drain urine into the bladder. Some (1 in 125 people), on the other hand, have two ureters draining a kidney. This is called "duplex anomaly" of the kidney. A "duplex anomaly" can be associated with a variety of conditions that can affect the kidney health. One of these conditions is referred to as "ureterocele."…more

Urethral trauma is when the urethra is hurt by force. Trauma to the anterior urethra is often from straddle injuries. This can occur with a sharp blow to the perineum. This type of trauma can lead to scars in the urethra (“urethral stricture ”). These scars can slow or block the flow of urine from the penis. For females, urethral injuries are rare. They’re always linked to pelvic fractures or cuts, tears, or direct trauma to the body near the vagina.…more

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