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Epispadias is a rare congenital (present at birth) abnormality that involves the opening of the urethra (the tube from which urine exit the bladder). In boys with epispadias, the urethra opens in top of the penis rather than the tip. The space between this opening and tip of the penis appears like an open book (gutter). In girls with epispadias, the urethral opening is towards the clitoris or even belly area. This results in the external genitalia and urethra not forming or functioning well.…more

Normally, the urethra and vagina are separate in females. In rare cases a birth defect causes the urethra and vagina to become one. This is known as urogenital sinus.…more

As a baby develops, three (3) openings normally form for the intestinal, genital and urinary tracts. In early stages of pregnancy, these three openings join together in a sac called “Cloaca.” They then separate from each other to form the anus, vagina and urethra. In rare cases, this area may develop incorrectly.…more

Vaginal blockages at birth are rare but must be fixed with surgery. Most female infants are born with a thin layer of issue (hymen) that surrounds the vaginal opening. In rare cases this space can be blocked.…more

Having two of everything may be normal when you are talking about eyes, ears, hands and feet, but in the female reproductive system, a doubling of certain organs — such as the uterus, cervix, and vagina — is not a welcome turn of events. Much of the female reproductive system is derived from two structures, known as mullerian ducts — a pair of embryonic ducts that evolve into the fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina in females. They come together during the ninth week of pregnancy. If this process is prevented or interrupted, "fusion" or "duplication" anomalies occur.…more

Vaginal agenesis is a birth defect that affects few women (1 out of 5,000). But unless it is fixed, it can make sex and having a baby impossible. It occurs when the vagina does not develop fully.…more

Every hour of every day, a baby is born and can easily be identified as a boy or girl. But how distressing it must be when suddenly the birth attendants are unable to say whether the baby is a boy or a girl? This rare situation is usually unanticipated, and can be a difficult experience for all concerned. What causes this condition? What can be done? The following information has been developed to answer questions about ambiguous genitalia.…more

Sometimes factors can occasionally interfere with bladder development, as is the case for children with cloacal exstrophy. This is the most severe birth defect in the exstrophy-epispadias complex. A child with this condition will have the bladder and a portion of the intestines, exposed outside the abdomen, with the bony pelvis open like a book.…more

Testicular Torsion is when a loose testicle twists around the spermatic chord. When this happens, it cuts off the blood flow to the testicle. It should be treated as a medical emergency. This is thankfully a rare problem, especially in newborns.…more

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