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Prostate cancer is when cancer forms in the prostate gland. It is the second-leading cause of cancer deaths for men in the U.S. About 1 in 7 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. …more

People can mean a lot of different things when they say they have "advanced" prostate cancer. They can mean that their prostate cancer has spread outside of the prostate but only to tissue near the prostate (like seminal vesicles). Prostate cancer that has not spread far can be called "locally advanced prostate cancer."…more

Bladder cancer is cancer that begins in the bladder. …more

Cancer is when cells in the body grow out of control. These cells can form a tumor or damaged tissue. If cancer cells grow in the kidney, it is called kidney cancer.…more

Thankfully, kidney tumors are rare in children, with some of them being highly treatable and usually curable. But would you know how to recognize this condition? The following information should help you spot this tumor long before it becomes a life-threatening issue.…more

The word renal means kidney. The words “tumor” and “mass” mean abnormal growths in the body. A renal mass, or tumor, is an abnormal growth in the kidney. Some renal masses are benign (not cancerous) and some are malignant (cancerous). …more

With timely diagnosis, testicular cancer is most likely treatable and most often curable. It is the most common cancer in men age 15 to 34. Still, it is fairly rare.…more

In children with testicular cancer, cancerous cells are found in the tissues of one or both testicles. Testicular tumors in children are rare, most likely treatable and most often curable.…more

Cancer is when cells in the body grow out of control, often forming a mass or tumor. In upper urinary tract cancer, abnormal cells are found in the renal pelvis, renal calyces and/or ureters.…more

Urethral cancer is rare is the most rare of all urological cancer. Only 1 or 2 people out of a 100 patients with cancer get this type. It is more common in men than women.…more

Cancer of the penis is rare in the United States. But, if you are at risk, finding it early is critical. The information here should help you spot this tumor long before it becomes life-threatening.…more

Rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare and sometimes deadly cancer that affects children. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma often starts in the genital and urinary organs. It affects soft, connective tissue, and can hit many systems of the body.…more

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlarged prostate. The prostate goes through two main growth periods as a man ages. The first occurs early in puberty, when the prostate doubles in size. The second phase of growth begins around age 25 and continues during most of a man’s life. As you age, your prostate may get larger. Benign prostatic hyperplasia often occurs with the second growth phase.…more

Prostatitis and related pelvic pain conditions involve pain in and around the prostate. Prostatitis and pelvic pain conditions can happen in men of all ages.…more

A chronic bladder health issue resulting in a feeling of pain and pressure in the bladder area. …more

Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is a cancer that spreads into the detrusor muscle of the bladder. The detrusor muscle is the thick muscle deep in the bladder wall. This cancer is more likely to spread to other parts of the body. About 1 out of 4 people who get bladder cancer in the United States have the muscle invasive kind.…more

Urinary incontinence is leaking of urine that you can’t control. Many American men and women suffer from urinary incontinence.…more

SUI is the most common type of urine leakage. It happens when activities like laughing or coughing cause urine to leak. Leakage can be a few drops to tablespoons or more.…more

During routine visits to your health care provider, you are often asked to give a urine sample for testing. Many tests are routinely performed on it, like checking for sugar (diabetes), bacteria (infection) and blood. Blood in the urine that you do not see is called “microscopic hematuria.”…more

Urinary diversion is when the normal structures are bypassed and an opening is made in the urinary system to bring the urine out another way. This might need to be done if your bladder stops working the right way or had to be removed because of cancer or an injury.…more

A bladder fistula is when an opening forms between the bladder and some other organ or the skin. Most often the bladder opens to the bowel ("enterovesical fistula") or the vagina ("vesicovaginal fistula").…more

A bladder diverticulum is a pouch in the bladder wall that a person may either be born with ("congenital") or get later ("acquired"). …more

Urethral diverticulum (UD) is a pocket or pouch that forms along the urethra. Because of its location, it can be filled with urine and lead to infections. It is can cause: a painful vaginal mass, ongoing pelvic pain, and many urinary tract infections (UTIs).…more

The urethra is a vital part of the urinary tract. Its main job is to carry urine out of the body. In men, this channel also carries semen from the reproductive tract.…more

Irregularities of the urethra in young boys are rare. But they can cause problems with urination.…more

Benign lesions in the urinary tracts of young girls are rare. But when they happen, they can cause problems.…more

Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection where one or both kidneys become infected. They can be infected by bacteria or a virus. It can cause people to feel very sick and it requires treatment.…more

The ureter is a muscular tube that transfers urine from the kidney to the bladder. It is about 10 inches long, with the upper half in the belly and the lower half in the pelvic area.…more

Most people are born with 2 kidneys. But sometimes the kidneys form fused together. The information here will help you talk to your urologist if you or your child has this condition.…more

The testicles (or "testes") are two organs that hang in a pouch-like skin sac (the scrotum) below the penis. The testicles are where sperm and testosterone (the male sex hormone) are made. An undescended testicle (or "testis") is when it fails to drop into the normal place in the scrotum.…more

Circumcision is cutting away the skin ("foreskin") that covers the tip of a baby's penis. In recent years, newborn circumcision has been a hot topic of debate.…more

Some men have low levels of testosterone. This is called hypogonadism, or low-T. …more

Male infertility is any health issue in a man that lowers the chances of his female partner getting pregnant. There are many causes for infertility in men and women. In over a third of infertility cases, the problem is with the man. This is most often due to problems with his sperm or with sperm delivery.…more

Vasectomy is minor surgery to block sperm from reaching the semen that is ejaculated from the penis. Semen still exists, but it has no sperm in it. After a vasectomy the testes still make sperm, but they are soaked up by the body. Each year, more than 500,000 men in the U.S. choose vasectomy for birth control. A vasectomy prevents pregnancy better than any other method of birth control, except abstinence. Only 1 to 2 women out of 1,000 will get pregnant in the year after their partners have had a vasectomy.…more

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are also commonly called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). They are the infections you get from another person through sexual contact.…more

Peyronie's disease is where plaques (segments of flat scar tissue) form under the skin of the penis. These plaques can cause the penis to bend or become indented during erections. The plaques can often be felt through the skin, and can also be painful.…more

Testicular trauma is when a testicle is hurt by force. Trauma to the testicle or scrotum can harm any of its contents.…more

Pain in the scrotum or testicle (“teste”) might be from epididymitis, orchitis or both. Epididymitis is swelling or pain in the back of the testicle in the coiled tube (epididymis) that stores and carries sperm. Orchitis is swelling or pain in one or both testicles, usually from an infection or virus.…more

A varicocele is when veins become enlarged inside your scrotum (the pouch of skin that holds your testicles). These veins are called the pampiniform plexus. Ten to 15 of every 100 males have a varicocele. It is like getting a varicose vein in your leg.…more

Spermatoceles are also known as spermatic cysts. They are fluid-filled masses, often painless, and they grow near the testicles. They tend to be benign (not cancerous). These cysts are found near the top and behind the testicle, but are separate from the testicle. The cysts can be smooth, filled with a whitish, cloudy fluid, and most often hold sperm. Their size can vary. If their size becomes a bother or causes pain, then there are some ways to fix the problem.…more

Yeast infections are among the most common medical annoyances. Luckily, most can be cured or controlled with clean habits and OTC (over-the-counter) drugs. …more

While benign (non-cancerous) tumors in the adrenal gland are very common, cancers in or around this gland are very rare. They are found in only 1 or 3 per 1 million people. These tumors can give off too much cortisol or other hormones.…more

An adrenal mass is an abnormal growth that develops in the adrenal gland. It’s unclear why these masses form. They can develop in anyone of any age, but they are more common in older individuals.…more

Before birth, there is a connection between the bellybutton and the bladder. This connection, called the urachus, normally disappears before birth. But what happens if part of the urachus remains after birth? Read on to learn more about what problems can arise.…more

Testicular self-examination is when you check your testicles for any abnormalities. It is important to know what feels normal and to be able to notice any changes.…more

A biopsy involves taking a piece of skin or tissue from the body to look under a microscope. A doctor will see if the tissue contains cancer or other abnormal cells. The results of the biopsy can help determine the next best step in diagnosis or treatment.…more

Conn's syndrome is a rare health problem that occurs when the adrenal glands make too much aldosterone. This problem is also known as primary hyperaldosteronism. Aldosterone is a hormone that controls salt and potassium levels in the blood. Too much leads to high blood pressure.…more

Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is a rare problem caused when the adrenal gland(s) makes too much of a hormone called cortisol. CS is most often due to a tumor or mass found in the pituitary gland, but can also be caused by tumors in the adrenal glands themselves.…more

Most kidneys work well cleaning the blood from waste and keeping the body’s fluids and electrolytes in balance. A problem can occur during early kidney development in utero that results in an abnormal kidney (kidney dysplasia). Cysts, or fluid filled sacs, replace normal kidney tissue. As a result, kidney function can deteriorate before or after birth. Children with end stage kidney function will require blood-filtering treatment (kidney dialysis) until a kidney is available to be transplanted.…more

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses radio waves and magnets to make detailed pictures of the body’s organs and soft tissues. These images can be seen in 3-D (3 dimensions).…more

Pheochromocytoma is a tumor found in the adrenal medulla (the inner part of the adrenal gland). The adrenal medulla makes the hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). If a tumor forms in this area, it can cause too much of these hormones to be made. This can be very dangerous, as it causes very high blood pressure.…more

Retrograde pyelography is a form of x-ray used to get detailed pictures of the ureters and kidneys. Retrograde pyelography uses a special dye (“contrast agent”) injected into the ureters. The dye makes the ureters and kidneys more easily seen on the x-ray. This test is like an intravenous pyelogram (IVP). But with IVP, the dye is injected into a vein instead of the ureter.…more

Urine cytology is a test to screen a patient’s urine for cancer cells. This is one of many tools used to diagnose cancers in the urinary tract, including bladder, kidney, prostate, ureter and urethra cancers.…more

Science has given urologists a bevy of tools to probe the most private parts of the body in diagnosing urinary and renal disease. Every modern imaging technology, from conventional X-rays to radionuclide imaging, has found its way into urologic radiology's arsenal. The good news for physicians is that they have many options to explore the kidneys, ureters, bladder and surrounding structures. The better news for patients is that today's tests are thorough, relatively pain-free and often quick.…more

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