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Urethral Cancer

Urethral cancer is a rare type of cancer affecting the male or female urethra that comprises approximately 1 to 2 percent of all urological cancers. Urethral cancer is the only urological cancer that affects women more frequently than men. To date, the number of persons diagnosed with this condition each year has remained stable. Although some people with urethral cancer do not complain of any symptoms, most do. What are these symptoms? How should this malignancy be treated? What is the chance of recovery? The following information should help answer these questions.

What happens under normal conditions?

The urethra is a hollow tube that allows urine to pass from the bladder, the organ that stores urine until ready for release, to the outside of the body. In men the urethra is approximately eight inches long, and passes through the prostate and the penis before it opens to the outside at the end of the penis. In women the urethra is approximately one and a half inches long and opens to the outside just above the vaginal opening.

A layer of cells called epithelium lines the urethra. In both men and women there are several glands located along the length of the urethra. A supportive network of connective tissue, elastic and muscle fibers and blood vessels surrounds the urethra.

What causes urethral cancer?

The exact cause of urethral cancer is not known. However, chronic inflammation and infection have been identified as factors that may increase the risk for developing this condition. Many men with urethral cancer have previously been treated for urethral stricture disease or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Many women with urethral cancer have previously been treated for urethral caruncle, urethral diverticulum or chronic urinary tract infection. In both men and women the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) has been linked to urethral cancer.

What are the symptoms of urethral cancer?

In its early stages, there are usually few symptoms associated with urethral cancer. As the cancer grows, some patients may notice a lump or growth on the urethra. Others may notice pain or bleeding that accompanies urination. If the tumor grows so that it narrows the diameter of the urethra, patients may have difficulty urinating or pass blood from their urethra.

How is urethral cancer diagnosed?

The diagnostic investigation begins with a thorough medical history and physical examination. The urologist will ask the patient about medical conditions that may be associated with urethral cancer, such as urethral stricture, STIs, bladder cancer, urethral caruncle, urethral diverticulum and urinary tract infection. The urologist will examine the urethra, feeling for any abnormalities.

An important diagnostic instrument that the urologist will use is the cystoscope, which is a thin, lighted scope that allows the urologist to view the inside of the urethra. Cystourethroscopy is most commonly performed as an office procedure under local anesthesia. If the urologist observes any abnormalities, the patient will require a biopsy.

A tissue biopsy is essential to diagnose urethral cancer. It is difficult to perform this procedure under local anesthesia, so the patient is usually scheduled to return for biopsy. Under general anesthesia or regional anesthesia, the urologist will biopsy any suspicious areas identified. Certain patients may also require a biopsy technique that involves passing a needle through the skin or vagina into the urethral growth. The biopsy tissue is then sent to the pathologist for examination under a microscope to confirm the diagnosis. Before the patient awakens from anesthesia, the urologist will perform a thorough examination to determine the local extent of the tumor.

Once urethral cancer is found, the extent of disease is categorized (i.e. staged) based on how deeply the tumor has penetrated the tissues surrounding the urethra (Table 1). More tests will be performed to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis may be performed in order to examine the lymph nodes that collect drainage from the urethra. An MRI may be performed in order to examine the local extent of the tumor. A chest X-ray is usually obtained to ensure that the tumor has not spread to the lungs, and select patients may require a bone scan to look for bony metastases. If the urethral cancer is classified as transitional cell carcinoma, the patient will undergo either excretory urography or retrograde pyelography to image the lining of the kidney and ureter to ensure there are no other sites of cancer.

In men, the part of the urethra that is closest to the bladder and prostate is more likely to originate from the cells that line the urinary tract (urothelial or transitional cells), whereas the part of the urethra inside the penis is more likely to originate from cells more like the skin (squamous cells), This difference may impact the way the disease is treated.

How is urethral cancer treated?

There are treatment options for all patients diagnosed with urethral cancer. These options may be divided into three categories: surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Surgery is the most common treatment for cancer of the urethra. There are several surgical techniques that may be used. For so-called "superficial" cancers, where the tumor has not invaded into surrounding tissues, the tumor may be removed by inserting an instrument such as a cystoscope into the urethra and using a loop electrocautery to remove the tumor, thereby avoiding an incision. For tumors that demonstrated invasion, some patients may require conventional surgery to remove the affected area. Certain men with a tumor that involves only part of the urethra inside the penis (anterior urethra) may require removal of part of the penis that contains the tumor (partial penectomy) or even removal of the entire penis (penectomy). A decision about whether to remove part or all of the penis depends on the location of the tumor and whether the entire tumor can be removed (with an adequate margin of normal tissue (usually 1-2 centimeters) to still allow a man to stand to urinate. In addition, if the tumor is invading into the erectile tissues of the penis itself, the entire penis may need amputation. If this procedure is done, a small hole on the underside of the scrotum is created (perineal urethrostomy) that allows urination. Of course, this procedure results in a situation where the patient must sit to void.

For patients with tumors that involve the part of the urethra that connects to the bladder and prostate (posterior urethra) more extensive surgery may be required. In men with this type of tumor the bladder and prostate, part of the bony pelvis, as well as the penis, may be removed. If this surgery is done, a piece of bowel is utilized to create a pouch into which the kidneys drain. This pouch can either be incontinent (thus, requiring wearing a stoma bag) or continent (requiring that the patient pass a small catheter 3-4 times a day to drain the pouch). Determining which type of reconstruction is right for you depends on what other medical conditions you have and your personal preference and circumstances.

In women with this type of tumor surgery to remove the urethra, bladder and part of the vagina may be required. Because the female urethra is so much shorter than the male urethra, it is rare to have a tumor small enough and distant enough from the urethral continence mechanism (sphincter) to remove the tumor with a margin of normal tissue and maintain urinary continence. Only the outer-most 1/3 (or about 7 mm) of urethra can be removed without compromising the continence mechanism. For this reason, the majority of women diagnosed with urethral cancer undergo removal of the urethra, bladder, and a portion of the vagina and the creation of a pouch with bowel into which the kidneys drain (see above).

For the men and women undergoing these extensive surgeries lymph nodes in the pelvis are often removed as well. When this is done, some patients may experience leg swelling owing to the fact that the lymphatic nodes that are removed are responsible for the drainage of fluid that seeps out of the blood vessels into the legs.

Radiation therapy destroys cancer cells with high-energy radiation. Radiation therapy may be used alone or in conjunction with surgery or chemotherapy. Although radiation therapy may allow the patient to retain his or her urethra and surrounding organs, this method of treatment is not without complications. Radiation to this region can result in bladder irritation, incontinence, or bleeding, rectal (or vaginal in women) pain and bleeding, as well as stricture to the urethra, causing obstructive urinary symptoms.

Chemotherapy kills cancer cells with drugs. Chemotherapy is generally reserved for situations where the cancer has escaped the urethra, so called metastatic tumors. Usually it is utilized either before surgery or radiation or after to help kill cells outside of the area targeted by the surgery or radiation. The type of drugs used for the treatment of each cancer depends on the risk that patient has for having metastasis, the burden of metastatic disease, and the specific histologic subtype of the tumor (urothelial or squamous). Each chemotherapy drug has a different side-effect profile, but most patients are monitored very closely by an oncologist during and after treatment with these drugs to prevent major problems with the medications.

What to expect after treatment?

Despite aggressive therapy with chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery, recurrence of urethral cancer following treatment is not uncommon. For this reason, patients with this condition require life-long follow-up with a physician. Follow up generally entails having a physical exam, lab work, CT scan and a chest x-ray on a semi-annual or annual basis. Only with early recognition of recurrence and prompt initiation of appropriate therapy in such cases is prolonged survival possible.

Frequently asked questions:

What determines if urethral cancer can be treated with local excision vs. a more radical surgical procedure?

In general, urethral cancers that involve the anterior urethra (part of the urethra closest to the outside) are more often successfully treated with local surgery. Tumors that involve the posterior urethra (part of the urethra closest to the bladder) often require more radical surgery to ensure optimal outcome.

What are the chances of urethral cancer coming back following treatment?

The likelihood of urethral cancer recurring following treatment depends on both the stage and location of the initial tumor. For patients with low stage disease, the five-year disease specific survival rate approaches 90 percent; patients with high stage disease have a survival rate of 33 percent. For patients with tumor located in the anterior urethra (the portion of the urethra in the penis for men, and the outermost 7-10 mm for women) regardless of stage, the five-year disease specific survival is 60 to 70 percent, whereas for patients with tumor located in the posterior urethra (the area that traverses the prostate in men and the innermost 1.5-2 cm in women) regardless of stage, the five-year survival rate is less than 25 percent.

If my bladder was surgically removed due to bladder cancer, can I still develop urethral cancer?

Yes, patients who undergo cystectomy for bladder cancer may still develop cancer of the urethra. For this reason, it is important for these patients to maintain close follow-up with their urologist. These patients will require periodic cytologic evaluation of urethral washings, and if cancerous cells are found in these washings a urethrectomy may be required.

Table 1 - TNM Staging of Urethral Cancer

Primary Tumor (T)

Tx

Primary tumor cannot be assessed

T0

No evidence of primary tumor

Ta

Noninvasive papillary, polypoid or verrucous carcinoma

Tis

Carcinoma in situ

T1

Tumor invades subepithelial connective tissue

T2

Tumor invades corpus spongiosum, prostate or periurethral muscle

T3

Tumor invades corpus cavernosum, beyond prostatic capsule, anterior vagina or bladder neck

T4

Tumor invades other adjacent organs (i.e. bladder)

Regional Lymph Nodes (N)

Nx

Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed

N0

No regional lymph node metastasis

N1

Metastases in a single lymph node, 2 cm or less in greatest dimension

N2

Metastases in a single node >2 cm but <5 cm in greatest dimension, or in multiple nodes (none greater than 5cm)

N3

Metastases in lymph node greater than 5 cm in greatest dimension

Distant Metastases (M)

Mx

Distant metastases cannot be assessed

M0

No distant metastases

M1

Distant metastases



Reviewed: January 2011

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Urethral Cancer Glossary
  • abdomen: Also referred to as the belly. It is the part of the body that contains all of the internal structures between the chest and the pelvis.

  • anesthesia: Loss of sensation in any part of the body induced by a numbing or paralyzing agent. Often used during surgery to put a person to sleep.

  • anterior: At or near the front.

  • biopsy: A procedure in which a tiny piece of a body part (tissue sample), such as the kidney or bladder, is removed (with a needle or during surgery) for examination under a microscope; to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present.

  • bladder: The bladder is a thick muscular balloon-shaped pouch in which urine is stored before being discharged through the urethra.

  • bladder neck: Area of thickened muscle fiber where the bladder joins the urethra. Acting on signals from the brain, bladder neck muscles can either tighten to hold urine in the bladder or relax to allow urine out and into the urethra. These muscles also tighten during ejaculation to prevent backflow of semen into the bladder.

  • bone scan: A nuclear image of the skeleton.

  • bowel: Another word for intestines or colon.

  • cancer: An abnormal growth that can invade nearby structures and spread to other parts of the body and may be a threat to life.

  • carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover body organs.

  • caruncle: Fleshy growth.

  • catheter: A thin tube that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder to allow urine to drain or for performance of a procedure or test, such as insertion of a substance during a bladder X-ray.

  • chemotherapy: Treatment with medications that kill cancer cells or stop them from spreading.

  • chronic: Lasting a long time. Chronic diseases develop slowly. Chronic renal (kidney) failure may develop over many years and lead to end-stage renal (kidney) disease.

  • continence: The ability to control the timing of urination or a bowel movement.

  • corpus spongiosum: A column of erectile tissue in the center of the penis and surrounding the urethra. When filled with blood it enlarges and causes the penis to swell and become erect.

  • CT scan: Also known as computerized tomography, computerized axial tomography or CT scan. A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images of the body. Shows detailed images of any part of the body, including bones, muscles, fat and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays.

  • cyst: An abnormal sac containing gas, fluid or a semisolid material. Cysts may form in kidneys or other parts of the body.

  • cystectomy: Surgical removal of the bladder.

  • cystoscope: A narrow, tube-like instrument fitted with lenses and a light passed through the urethra to look inside the bladder. The procedure is called cystoscopy (sis-TAW-skuh-pee).

  • cytologic evaluation: Refers to microscopic analysis of cells to evaluate their formation, origin, structure, function, biochemical activities and pathology. This test is commonly used to look for cancers.

  • diagnosis: The process by which a doctor determines what disease or condition a patient has by studying the patient's symptoms and medical history, and analyzing any tests performed (e.g., blood tets, urine tests, brain scans, etc.).

  • diverticulum: A pouch or sac in the lining of the mucous membrane of an organ.

  • epithelium: The outside layer of cells.

  • erectile: Capable of filling with blood under pressure, swelling and becoming stiff.

  • excision: Surgical cut.

  • excretory: unwanted or undigestable matter.

  • excretory urography: A test to evaluate the kidneys, urinary tract and bladder. Medicine is given through an intravenous line (IV). This medicine moves through the body and is ultimately concentrated in the kidneys. A series of X-rays are taken, and are viewed by the radiologist to evaluate the kidneys, urinary tract and bladder.

  • gene: The basic unit capable of transmitting characteristics from one generation to the next.

  • general anesthesia: Person is put to sleep with muscle relaxation and no pain sensation over the entire body.

  • gland: A mass of cells or an organ that removes substances from the bloodstream and excretes them or secretes them back into the blood with a specific physiological purpose.

  • HPV: Also known as human papilloma virus. One of the most common causes of sexually transmitted disease.

  • HPV: Also known as juman papillomavirus. A family of over 60 viruses responsible for causing warts.

  • human papilloma virus: Also known as HPV. One of the most common causes of sexually transmitted disease.

  • incision: Surgical cut for entering the body to perform an operation.

  • incontinence: Loss of bladder or bowel control; the accidental loss of urine or feces.

  • infection: A condition resulting from the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms.

  • inflammation: Swelling, redness, heat and/or pain produced in the area of the body as a result of irritation, injury or infection.

  • invasive: Having or showing a tendency to spread from the point of origin to adjacent tissue, as some cancers do. Involving cutting or puncturing the skin or inserting instruments into the body.

  • invasive: Not just on the surface; with regard to bladder cancer, a tumor that has grown into the bladder wall.

  • ions: Electrically charged atoms.

  • kidney: One of two bean-shaped organs that filter wastes from the blood and discharge these waste products in urine. The kidneys are located on either side at the level of the 12th ribs toward the back. The kidneys send urine to the bladder through tubes called ureters.

  • kidneys: One of two bean-shaped organs that filter wastes from the blood and discharge these waste products in urine. The kidneys are located on either side at the level of the 12th ribs toward the back. The kidneys send urine to the bladder through tubes called ureters.

  • local anesthesia: Loss of sensation only in one part of the body induced by application of an anesthetic agent.

  • lymph: Fluid containing white cells. It can transport bacteria, viruses and cancer cells.

  • lymph nodes: Small rounded masses of tissue distributed along the lymphatic system most prominently in the armpit, neck and groin areas. Lymph nodes produce special cells that help fight off foreign agents invading the body. Lymph nodes also act as traps for infectious agents.

  • malignancy: A cancerous growth.

  • metastases: The spread of a cancerous tumor to another part of the body.

  • metastasis: The spreading of a cancerous tumor to another part of the body.

  • metastatic: Cancer that has metastasized, in other words, spread to other parts of the body.

  • MRI: Also referred to a magnetic resonance imaging. A diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.

  • oncologist: A doctor who specializes in the treatment of cancer.

  • ostomy: A surgical procedure such as a colostomy or ileostomy, in which an artificial opening for excreting waste matter is created.

  • pathologist: A physician who interprets and diagnoses the changes caused by disease in tissues and body fluids.

  • pelvis: The bowl-shaped bone that supports the spine and holds up the digestive, urinary and reproductive organs. The legs connect to the body at the pelvis.

  • penis: The male organ used for urination and sex.

  • perineal: Related to the area between the anus and the scrotum in males and the area between the anus and the vagina in females.

  • periurethral: Lining of the urethra.

  • polyp: Small, stalk-like growth sticking out from the skin or from a mucous membrane.

  • posterior: Situated at the rear or behind something.

  • prostate: A walnut-shaped gland in men that surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder. The prostate supplies fluid that goes into semen.

  • prostatic: Pertaining to the prostate.

  • pus: The yellowish or greenish fluid that forms at sites of infection.

  • radiation: Also referred to as radiotherapy. X-rays or radioactive substances used in treatment of cancer.

  • radiation therapy: Also referred to as radiotherapy or radiation. X-rays or radioactive substances used in treatment of cancer.

  • radical: Complete removal.

  • rectal: Relating to, involving or in the rectum.

  • regional anesthesia: Loss of sensation in the region of the body produced by application of an anesthetic agent to all nerves supplying that region.

  • retrograde: Backwards.

  • retrograde pyelography: Radiographic imaging of the ureters and collecting system of the kidneys by introducing a dye opaque to X-rays by way of urinary catheter.

  • scrotum: Also referred to as the scrotal sac. The sac of tissue that hangs below the penis and contains the testicles.

  • sphincter: A round muscle that opens and closes to let fluid or other matter pass into or out of an organ. Sphincter muscles keep the bladder closed until it is time to urinate.

  • stage: Classification of the progress of a disease.

  • stoma: An opening.

  • stricture: Abnormal narrowing of a body passage.

  • stricture disease: Condition where there is an abnormal narrowing of a body opening.

  • superficial: On the surface.

  • tissue: Group of cells in an organism that are similar in form and function.

  • transitional cell carcinoma: A type of cancer that develops in the lining of the bladder, ureter or renal pelvis.

  • tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue or growth of cells.

  • ureter: One of two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

  • urethra: A tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. In males, the urethra serves as the channel through which semen is ejaculated and it extends from the bladder to the tip of the penis. In females, the urethra is much shorter than in males.

  • urethral: Relating to the urethra, the tube tha carries urine from the bladder to outside the body.

  • urethral diverticulum: A sac-like or tubular growth caused by a weakened area in the urethra.

  • urethral stricture: Scarring of tissue that causes narrowing or blockage of the canal leading from the bladder, discharging the urine externally.

  • urethral stricture disease: Scarring and narrowing at one or more points in the urethra and of variable severity.

  • urethrectomy: Excision of a segment or the entire urethra.

  • urethroscopy: Inspection of the urethra with a urethroscope.

  • urge: Strong desire to urinate.

  • urinary: Relating to urine.

  • urinary continence: Ability to control urination.

  • urinary tract: The system that takes wastes from the blood and carries them out of the body in the form of urine. Passageway from the kidneys to the ureters, bladder and urethra.

  • urinary tract infection: Also referred to as UTI. An illness caused by harmful bacteria, viruses or yeast growing in the urinary tract.

  • urinate: To release urine from the bladder to the outside. Also referred to as void.

  • urination: The passing of urine.

  • urine: Liquid waste product filtered from the blood by the kidneys, stored in the bladder and expelled from the body through the urethra by the act of urinating (voiding). About 96 percent of which is water and the rest waste products.

  • urologist: A doctor who specializes in diseases of the male and female urinary systems and the male reproductive system. Click here to learn more about urologists. (Download the free Acrobat reader.)

  • urology: Branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract in males and females and with the genital tract and reproductive system of males.

  • vagina: The tube in a woman's body that runs beside the urethra and connects the uterus (womb)to the outside of the body. Sometimes called the birth canal. Sexual intercourse, the outflow of blood during menstruation and the birth of a baby all take place through the vagina.

  • vas: Also referred to as vas deferens. The cordlike structure that carries sperm from the testicle to the urethra.

  • void: To urinate, empty the bladder.

  • voiding: Urinating.

Urethral Cancer Anatomical Drawings

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