What Causes Nocturia?

Nocturia can be from a simple habit like drinking too much fluid (especially caffeine or alcohol) before bed. Or it could be from certain medication, illnesses or reduced bladder capacity.
The following lifestyle habits are known to cause nocturia in either men or women:

  • Drinking too much fluid before bedtime (especially caffeine or alcohol)
  • Behavioral patterns (you've trained your body to wake up during the night to use the bathroom, even if you don't necessarily have to go)
  • The timing or dose of medicines, such as: diuretic medicine (water pills), cardiac glycosides, demeclocycline, lithium, methoxyflurane, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and excessive vitamin D
  • Sleep disorders, like insomnia or sleep apnea

Underlying health conditions can cause nocturia. For example:

  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart disease, vascular disease or congestive heart failure
  • Bladder obstruction (stones), inflammation or other problems that affect bladder capacity (like bladder surgery or fibrosis from radiation)
  • Overactive bladder symptoms
  • Prostate obstruction
  • Vaginal prolapse
  • Menopause
  • Childbirth
  • Pelvic prolapse
  • Enlarged prostate (prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
  • Restless leg syndrome
  • Edema in the lower limbs, or leg swelling
  • Interstitial cystitis 
  • Reduced bladder capacity
  • Nocturnal polyuria (when your body produces too much urine at night for your bladder to hold)

Often, several of these issues may be going on at once.